Bibliography
Volcano:
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Records: 2744
Girina O.A., Carter A.J. 2006-2008 Eruptions of Bezymianny Volcano // Mitigating natural hazards in active arc environments. Abstracts. 6rd Biennial Workshop on Japan- Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP-2009). Fairbanks. June 22-26. 2009. С. 75
Girina O.A., Chubarova O.S., Senyukov S.L. The Recent Activity of Sheveluch Volcano // Abstracts. 3rd Biennial Workshop on Subduction Processes emphasizing the Kurile-Kamchatka-Aleutian Arcs (JKASP-3). Fairbanks. June 2002. 2002. P. 121-122.
Girina O.A., Gorbach N.V., Davydova V.O., Melnikov D.V., Manevich T.M, Manevich A.G., Demyanchuk Yu.V. The 15 March 2019 Bezymianny Volcano Explosive Eruption and Its Products // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2020. Vol. 14. № 6. P. 394-409. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0742046320060032.
   Annotation
Bezymianny Volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in Kamchatka and in the world. This paper describes the preparation, behavior, products, dynamics, and the geological effect of the March 15, 2019 explosive eruption of the volcano, which was predicted 6.5 h before it began. The sequence of eruptive events was analyzed using data provided by video and satellite-based monitoring of the volcano; the quantitative characteristics for the distribution of pyroclastic deposits were obtained in the information system “Remote Monitoring of Activity of Volcanoes in Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands”. The explosions lifted ash to heights of 15 km above sea level (up to 12 km above the volcano), the eruptive cloud was moving northeastward and east from the volcano, the main ashfall area was 210 400 km2, including 15 000 km2 on land. Apart from tephra, the eruption produced pyroclastic flows and pyroclastic surges covering an area of 30 km2. The total volume of explosive products is estimated as 0.1–0.2 km3. The eruptive rocks are calc-alkaline moderate-K basaltic andesites (SiO2 = 54.84–56.29 wt %), they are the most mafic among all rocks of the current Bezymianny eruption cycle.
Girina O.A., Gorbach N.V., Nuzhdaev A.A. Geological Effect of 2005 Eruptions of Sheveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia // Abstracts. 5rd Biennial Workshop on Subduction Processes emphasizing the Japan-Kurile-Kamchatka-Aleutian Arcs (JKASP-5). 2006. P. 43
Girina O.A., Gordeev E.I. Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Russia // Modern Information Technologies in Earth Sciences. Proc. of the VI International Conference, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, August 7-11, 2016. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. 2016. P. 29
Girina O.A., Gordeev E.I., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Romanova I.M. The 25 Anniversary Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team // 10th Biennual workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska subduction processes (JKASP-2018). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia, August 20-26. // 10th Biennual workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska subduction processes (JKASP-2018). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: IVS FEB RAS. 2018. P. 80-82.
Girina O.A., Ladygin V.М. Monogenetic cones of Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes (Kamchatka, Russia) // Abstract volume of the 8th International Maar Conference. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: IVS FEB RAS. 2020. P. 56-57.
Girina O.A., Loupian E.A., Efremov V.Yu., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Gordeev E.I., Sorokin A.A., Kramareva L.S., Uvarov I.A., Kashnitskii A.V., Burtsev M.A. The VolSatView for Satellite Monitoring and Kamchatkan Volcanoes Study // AGU Abstracts. Washington D.C.: 2018. № 358489.
   Annotation
Annually, from 3 to 6 Kamchatkan volcanoes produce eruptions, during which the explosions eject ash to 10-15 km a.s.l., and ash clouds spread thousands of kilometers from volcanoes. Ash clouds pose a serious threat to the modern jet aviation. Scientists of KVERT have conduct daily monitoring of Kamchatka volcanoes since 1993, to mitigate volcanic hazards to airline operations and population. Since 2014, satellite monitoring of volcanoes they carried out with the VolSatView (Remote monitoring of active volcanoes of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands) (http://volcanoes.smislab.ru) IS. The system utilize all the available satellite data, weather and video observations to ensure continues monitoring and study of volcanic activity in Kamchatka. The VolSatView work with distributed information resources and computation systems. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project No. 16-17-00042.
Girina O.A., Loupian E.A., Efremov V.Yu., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Sorokin A.A., Kramareva L.S., Uvarov I.A., Kashnitskii A.V., Bourtsev M.A., Marchenkov V.V., Mazurov A.A., Malkovsky S.I., Romanova I.M., Korolev S.P. The VolSatView information system for monitoring and study Kamchatkan and Northern Kuriles volcanoes // 10th Biennual workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska subduction processes (JKASP-2018). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia, August 20-26. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: IVS FEB RAS. 2018. P. 77-79.
Girina O.A., Loupian E.A., Horváth Á, Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Bril A.A., Ozerov A.Yu., Kramareva L.S., Sorokin A.A. Analysis of the Development of the Paroxysmal Eruption of the Sheveluch Volcano on April 10–13, 2023, Based on Data from Various Satellite Systems // Cosmic Research. 2023. Vol. 61. Vol. 1. P. S182-S187. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0010952523700533.
   Annotation
The Sheveluch volcano is the most active volcano in Kamchatka. The paroxysmal explosive eruption of the volcano that destroyed the lava dome in the volcanic crater continued on April 10–13, 2023. According to various satellite data, the height of the separate eruptive clouds probably exceeded 15 km above sea level. A powerful cyclone, which dominated the entire Kamchatka Peninsula, pulled the eruptive cloud to the west, turned it to the south, stretched it to the north, and directed it to the east from the volcano. The dynamics of the development of ash and aerosol clouds of this eruption is reflected in the animations made from a series of Himawari-9 satellite images in the VolSatView IS from 08:00 UTC on April 10 to 07:00 UTC on April 14 (http://d33.infospace.ru/jr_d33/materials/2023v20n2/283-291/1683110898.webm) and of the Arctica-M1 satellite from 16:00 to 21:30 UTC on April 10 (http://d33.infospace.ru/jr_d33/materials/2023v20n2/283-291/1683821166.webm). It was noted that the eruptive column was not vertical: for example, at the initial moment of the eruption on April 10 at 13:20 UTC, it deviated to the north–northeast; on April 11, at 12:00 UTC to the northwest; and, on April 12, at 7:00 UTC to the southwest. During the paroxysmal eruption, sulfur dioxide continuously entered the atmosphere, the maximum amount of which was released on April 10–11, as a result of the explosive destruction of the lava dome of the Sheveluch volcano. Ash clouds along with aerosol clouds on April 10–13 were stretched into a strip more than 3500 km long from west to northeast. On April 21–22, the Sheveluch aerosol cloud was observed in the region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The total area of the territory of Kamchatka and the Pacific Ocean where ash and aerosol plumes and clouds were observed during the April 10–13 eruption was about 3280000 km2. The paroxysmal eruption of Sheveluch volcano belongs to the sub-Plinian type because it is characterized by a large height of the eruptive cloud and a long event duration. For this eruption, the Volcanic Explosivity Index is estimated to be 3–4. A detailed description of the paroxysmal explosive eruption of the Sheveluch volcano and the spread of the eruptive cloud was performed based on data from various satellite systems (Himawari-9, NOAA-18/19, GOES-18, Terra, Aqua, JPSS-1, Suomi NPP, Arctica-M1, etc.) in the information system “Remote Monitoring of Kamchatka and Kuril Islands Volcanic Activity” (VolSatView, http://kamchatka.volcanoes.smislab.ru).