Bessonova E.P., Bortnikova S.B., Gora M.P., Manstein Yu.A., Shevko A.Ya., Panin G.L., Manstein A.K. Geochemical and geo-electrical study of mud pools at the Mutnovsky volcano (South Kamchatka, Russia): Behavior of elements, structures of feeding channels and a model of origin // Applied Geochemistry. 2012. Vol. 27. № 9. P. 1829 - 1843. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2012.02.018.
This study presents data on the geochemical composition of boiling mud pools at the Mutnovsky volcano. The physicochemical characteristics of the pools and the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements in pool solutions vary widely. A comparison of the geochemical compositions of host rocks and solutions indicates that leaching from rocks is not the only source of chemicals in thermal solutions. Geophysical studies reveal the inner structure of thermal fields, which reflect the shapes of the underground reservoirs and feed channels. Using geophysical methods (electrical resistivity tomography and frequency domain investigations), it was shown that the vertical structure and complex geochemical zonation of the feed channels leads to a high contrast in the compositions of the mud solutions. These findings answer questions about the origin and composition of surface manifestations. To elucidate the mechanisms of solution formation, an attempt was made to describe the magmatic fluid evolution and the resulting mixing of waters by physical and mathematical models. The model illustrates fluid migration from a magma chamber to the surface. It is shown that the formation of brines corresponding to the mud pool composition is possible during secondary boiling.
Bindeman I.N., Leonov V.L., Colon D.P., Rogozin Aleksei, Shipley N.K., Jicha B.R., Loewen M.W., Gerya T.V. Isotopic and Petrologic Investigation, and a Thermomechanical Model of Genesis of Large-Volume Rhyolites in Arc Environments: Karymshina Volcanic Complex, Kamchatka, Russia // Frontiers in Earth Science/Volcanology. 2019. Vol. 6. № 238. doi: 10.3389/feart.2018.00238.
The Kamchatka Peninsula of eastern Russia is currently one of the most volcanically active areas on Earth where a combination of > 8 cm/yr subduction convergence rate and thick continental crust generates large silicic magma chambers, reﬂected by abundant large calderas and caldera complexes. This study examines the largest center of silicic 4-0.5 Ma Karymshina Volcanic Complex, which includes the 25 × 15 km Karymshina caldera, the largest in Kamchatka. A series of rhyolitic tuff eruptions at 4 Ma were followed by the main eruption at 1.78 Ma and produced an estimated 800 km3 of rhyolitic ignimbrites followed by high-silica rhyolitic post-caldera extrusions. The postcaldera domes trace the 1.78 Ma right fracture and form a continuous compositional series with ignimbrites. We here present results of a geologic, petrologic, and isotopic study of the Karymshina eruptive complex, and present new Ar-Ar ages, and isotopic values of rocks for the oldest pre- 1.78 Ma caldera ignimbrites and intrusions, which include a diversity of compositions from basalts to rhyolites. Temporal trends in δ18O, 87Sr/86Sr, and 144Nd/143Nd indicate values comparable to neighboring volcanoes, increase in homogeneity, and temporal increase in mantle-derived Sr and Nd with increasing differentiation over the last 4 million years. Data are consistent with a batholithic scale magma chamber formed by primarily fractional crystallization of mantle derived composition and assimilation of Cretaceous and younger crust, driven by basaltic volcanism and mantle delaminations. All rocks have 35–45% quartz, plagioclase, biotite, and amphibole phenocrysts. Rhyolite-MELTS crystallization models favor shallow (2 kbar) differentiation conditions and varying quantities of assimilated amphibolite partial melt and hydrothermally-altered silicic rock. Thermomechanical modeling with a typical 0.001 km3/yr eruption rate of hydrous basalt into a 38 km Kamchatkan arc crust produces two magma bodies, one near the Moho and the other engulﬁng the entire section of upper crust. Rising basalts are trapped in the lower portion of an upper crustal magma body, which exists in a partially molten to solid state. Differentiation products of basalt periodically mix with the resident magma diluting its crustal isotopic signatures. At the end of the magmatism crust is thickened by 8 km. Thermomechanical modeling show that the most likely way to generate large spikes of rhyolitic magmatism is through delamination of cumulates and mantle lithosphere after many millions of years of crustal thickening. The paper also presents a chemical dataset for Paciﬁc ashes from ODDP 882 and 883 and compares them to Karymshina ignimbrites and two other Pleistocene calderas studied by us in earlier works.
Bindeman I.N., Leonov V.L., Izbekov P.E., Ponomareva V.V., Watts K.E., Shipley N.K., Perepelov A.B., Bazanova L.I., Jicha B.R., Singer B.S., Schmitt A.K., Portnyagin M.V., Chen C.H. Large-volume silicic volcanism in Kamchatka: Ar–Ar and U–Pb ages, isotopic, and geochemical characteristics of major pre-Holocene caldera-forming eruptions // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2010. Vol. 189. № 1-2. P. 57-80. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.10.009.
The Kamchatka Peninsula in far eastern Russia represents the most volcanically active arc in the world in terms of magma production and the number of explosive eruptions. We investigate large-scale silicic volcanism in the past several million years and present new geochronologic results from major ignimbrite sheets exposed in Kamchatka. These ignimbrites are found in the vicinity of morphologically-preserved rims of partially eroded source calderas with diameters from ∼ 2 to ∼ 30 km and with estimated volumes of eruptions ranging from 10 to several hundred cubic kilometers of magma. We also identify and date two of the largest ignimbrites: Golygin Ignimbrite in southern Kamchatka (0.45 Ma), and Karymshina River Ignimbrites (1.78 Ma) in south-central Kamchatka. We present whole-rock geochemical analyses that can be used to correlate ignimbrites laterally. These large-volume ignimbrites sample a significant proportion of remelted Kamchatkan crust as constrained by the oxygen isotopes. Oxygen isotope analyses of minerals and matrix span a 3‰ range with a significant proportion of moderately low-δ18O values. This suggests that the source for these ignimbrites involved a hydrothermally-altered shallow crust, while participation of the Cretaceous siliceous basement is also evidenced by moderately elevated δ18O and Sr isotopes and xenocryst contamination in two volcanoes. The majority of dates obtained for caldera-forming eruptions coincide with glacial stages in accordance with the sediment record in the NW Pacific, suggesting an increase in explosive volcanic activity since the onset of the last glaciation 2.6 Ma. Rapid changes in ice volume during glacial times and the resulting fluctuation of glacial loading/unloading could have caused volatile saturation in shallow magma chambers and, in combination with availability of low-δ18O glacial meltwaters, increased the proportion of explosive vs effusive eruptions. The presented results provide new constraints on Pliocene–Pleistocene volcanic activity in Kamchatka, and thus constrain an important component of the Pacific Ring of Fire.
Blokh Yu. I., Bondarenko V. I., Dolgal’ A. S., Novikova P. N., Petrova V. V., Pilipenko O. V., Rashidov V. A., Trusov A. A. The Rikord Submarine Volcanic Massif, Kuril Island Arc // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2018. Vol. 12. № 4. P. 252-267. doi:10.1134/S0742046318040024.
This paper reports a study of the Rikord volcanic massif. The massif consists of four volcanic edifices that coalesce in their bases, and is most likely Quaternary. The massif discharged basaltic and basaltic andesite lavas during its earlier life. The observed high natural remanent magnetization that was found in dredged rocks is due to high concentrations of single-domain and pseudo-single-domain grains of titanomagnetite and magnetite. We have identified the directions of the conduits and the presence of peripheral magma chambers. A 3D model has been developed for the central part of the Rikord volcanic massif; the model includes ten large disturbing magnetic blocks that are most likely cooled, nearly vertical, conduits.
Изучено строение подводного вулканического массива Рикорда, состоящего из четырех сливающихся по основанию вулканических построек, и имеющего, скорее всего, четвертичный возраст. На начальных этапах жизни вулканического массива изливались базальтовые и андезибазальтовые лавы. Высокие значения естественной остаточной намагниченности драгированных пород обусловлены большим содержанием однодоменных и псевдооднодоменных зерен титаномагнетита и магнетита. Установлены направления подводящих каналов и наличие периферических магматических очагов. Построена объемная модель центральной части вулканического массива Рикорда, в которой выделено десять крупных магнитовозмущающих блоков, которые, вероятнее всего, являются застывшими субвертикальными подводящими каналами.
Bocharnikov R.E., Shmulovich K I., Tkachenko S.I., Korzhinskii M.A., Steinberg G.S. Gas metasomatism: Experiments on natural Fumaroles of Kudryavyi Volcano, Iturup, Kuril Islands // Geochemistry International. 2000. Vol. 38. P. 186-193.
Direct experiments on high-temperature (910 and 620°C) fumaroles of Kudryavy Volcano have demonstrated that low-density volcanic gas interacts with rock-forming and ore minerals (12 minerals were studied). The mechanism of the interaction is determined by gas metasomatism reactions: (a) at given conditions, sphalerite, calcite, barite, and gypsum are either dissolved and removed by gas or replaced with other minerals (calcite → anhydrite); (b) reactions with silicates (feldspars, olivine, and biotite) proceed owing to diffusion cation exchange. Structural rearrangements in biotite are possible due to dehydration and loss of alkalis and aluminum. The kinetics of interaction between hot gas and silicates is governed by the rate of cation diffusion in the mineral at given conditions. Precipitation of sublimates on the surfaces of minerals does not affect much the process of reactions. Interaction between volcanic gas and minerals results in albitization of feldspars and ferruginization of olivine and biotite. The scale of metasomatism in the crystalline rocks of Kudryavyi Volcano has been estimated as about 3 mm in 115 years.
Bogatikov O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Gurbanov A.G., Katov D.M., Puriga A.I. The Catastrophic Paleolahars of the Elbrus Volcano, Northern Caucasus // Doklady Earth Sciences. 1998. Vol. 362. № 7. P. 951-954.
Bogatikov O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Gurbanov A.G., Sulerzhitskii L.D., Katov D.M., Puriga A.I. Radiocarbon dating of holocene eruptions of the Elbrus Volcano in the northern Caucasus, Russia // Doklady Earth Sciences. 1998. Vol. 363. № 8. P. 1093-1095.
Bogoyavlenskaya G.E., Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Kirianov V.Yu., Dan Miller C. Catastrophic eruptions of the directed-blast type at Mount St. Helens, Bezymianny and Shiveluch volcanoes // Journal of Geodynamics. 1985. Vol. 3. № 3-4. P. 189-218. doi:10.1016/0264-3707(85)90035-3.
This paper describes catastrophic eruptions of Mount St. Helens (1980), Bezymianny (1955–1956), and Shiveluch (1964) volcanoes. A detailed description of eruption stages and their products, as well as the quantitative characteristics of the eruptive process are given. The eruptions under study belong to the directed-blast type. This type is characterized by the catastrophic character of the climatic stage during which a directed blast, accompanied by edifice destruction, the profound ejection of juvenile pyroclastics and the formation of pyroclastic flows, occur. The climatic stage of all three eruptions has similar characteristics, such as duration, kinetic energy of blast (10^17−10^18 J), the initial velocity of debris ejection, morphology and size of newly-formed craters. But there are also certain differences. At Mount St. Helens the directed blast was preceeded by failure of the edifice and these events produced separable deposits, namely debris avalanche and directed blast deposits which are composed of different materials and have different volumes, thickness and distribution. At Bezymianny, failure did not precede the blast and the whole mass of debris of the old edifice was outburst only by blast. The resulting deposits, represented by the directed blast agglomerate and sand facies, have characteristics of both the debris avalanche and the blast deposit at Mount St. Helens. At Shiveluch directed-blast deposits are represented only by the directed-blast agglomerate; the directed-blast sand facies, or blast proper, seen at Mount St. Helens is absent. During the period of Plinian activity, the total volumes of juvenile material erupted at Mount St. Helens and at Besymianny were roughly comparable and exceeded the volume of juvenile material erupted at Shiveluch, However, the volume of pyroclastic-flow deposits erupted at Mount St. Helens was much less.
The heat energy of all three eruptions is comparable: 1.3 × 10^18, 3.8−4.8 × 10^18 and 1 × 10^17 J for Shiveluch, Bezymianny, and Mount St. Helens, respectively.
Bogoyavlenskaya G.E., Girina O.A. Bezymianny volcano: 50 years of activity // Abstracts. 5rd Biennial Workshop on Subduction Processes emphasizing the Japan-Kurile-Kamchatka-Aleutian Arcs (JKASP-5). 2006. P. 129 doi: P 601.
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