Bibliography
Volcano:
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Koloskov A.V., Flerov G.B., Perepelov A.B., Melekestsev I.V., Puzankov M.Yu., Filosofova T.M. Evolution Stages and Petrology of the Kekuknai Volcanic Massif as Reflecting the Magmatismin Backarc Zone of Kuril-Kamchatka Island Arc System. Part 1. Geological Position and Geochemistry of Volcanic Rocks // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2011. Vol. 5. № 5. P. 312-334. doi: 10.1134/S074204631104004X.
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Выделено пять стадий эволюции четвертичного Кекукнайского вулканического массива (западный фланг Срединного хребта Камчатки): 1) докальдерная трахибазальтовая-андезибазальтовая, 2) экструзивная трахиандезит-трахидацитовая, 3) ранняя трахибазальтовая, 4) средняя гавайит-муджиеритовая (с единичными проявлениями андезибазальтов) и 5) поздняя трахибазальт-гавайит-муджиеритовая (с единичными проявлениями андезитов) - ареального вулканизма. По петрологическим данным среди пород массива выделены островодужный и внутриплитный геохимические типы. Ведущую роль в пет-рогенезисе играла динамика флюидной фазы при подчиненной роли процессов фракционной кристаллизации и гибридизма. Последовательное насыщение пород флюидной фазой в ходе эволюции расплавов было прервано в период кальдерообразования, когда осуществилась экстракция большей части флюидомобильных элементов и кремнезема. Геологические и петрологические материалы свидетельствуют о том, что формирование массива произошло в обстановке задугового вулканического бассейна в условиях начавшегося рифтогенеза, при активном участии компонентов мантийного плюма.
Koloskov A.V., Flerov G.B., Perepelov A.B., Melekestsev I.V., Puzankov M.Yu., Filosofova T.M. The Evolutionary Stages and Petrology of the Kekuknai Volcanic Massif Reflecting the Magmatism in the Backarc Zone of the Kuril-Kamchatka Island Arc System. Part II. Petrologic and Mineralogical Features, Petrogenesis Model // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2013. Vol. 7. № 2. P. 145-169. doi: 10.1134/S0742046313020048.
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Кекукнайский массив сформировался в результате тектоно-магматической деятельности, выразившейся образованием щитообразного вулкана, кальдерной депрессии с сопутствующим внедрением экструзий, и завершившейся интенсивным посткальдерным ареальным вулканизмом. Проведено детальное рассмотрение особенностей минералогического состава пород массива. Использование уже имеющихся и дополнительно выявленных индикаторных возможностей породообразующих минералов позволило восстановить общую картину эволюции магматических расплавов и условия кристаллизации пород (различная флюидонасыщенность-обводненность и окисленность системы). Существенно островодужные или внутриплитные характеристики в составе пород массива проявлены на разных стадиях развития единой флюидно-магматической системы. Декомпрессионная эволюция материнской глубинной базанитовой магмы была реализована появлением в промежуточных очагах дочерних магм трахибазальтового (докальдерный этап развития системы) или гавайитового (ареальный вулканизм) состава. Дальнейшая эманационно-магматическая дифференциация этих расплавов в сочетании с кристаллизационной дифференциации в условиях меняющейся P-T-f02 обстановки и привела к образованию всего многообразия пород Кекукнайского массива.
Kontorovich A.E., Bortnikova S.B., Karpov G.A., Kashirtsev V.A., Kostyreva E.A., Fomin A.N. Uzon volcano caldera (Kamchatka): A unique natural laboratory of the present-day naphthide genesis // Russian Geology and Geophysics. 2011. Vol. 52. № 8. P. 768 - 772. doi: 10.1016/j.rgg.2011.07.002.
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Oil shows from the thermal springs of the Uzon volcano caldera have been studied by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry methods. Based on the composition and distribution of biomarker molecules, their genetic identity with the organic matter of Pliocene–Quaternary deposits has been established. It has been shown that the Uzon caldera is a unique natural laboratory of the present-day oil formation from the organic matter of Pliocene–Quaternary sediments. It has been stated that attempts to consider the compounds forming these oil shows as a product of hydrothermal abiogenic synthesis are absolutely unfounded.
Kopylova G.N., Boldina S.V. Groundwater Pressure Changes Due to Magmatic Activation: Case Study of The E-1 Well, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia // Geothermal Volcanology Workshop 2020. September 03-09, 2020, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. 2020.
Kopylova G.N., Boldina S.V. On the Relationships of Water-Level Variations in the E-1 Well, Kamchatka to the 2008–2009 Resumption of Activity on Koryakskii Volcano and to Large (M ≥ 5) Earthquakes // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2012. Vol. 6. № 5. P. 312-328. doi: 10.1134/S074204631205003X.
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Abstract—We discuss the water!level variations in the E!1 well for the time period between May 2006 and
2010, inclusive. A trend towards an increasing level at an abnormally high rate occurred from mid!2006 to
December 2009. This increase is regarded as the response of the aquifer of gas!saturated ground water that
exists in the volcanogenic–sedimentary deposits of the Avacha volcano!tectonic depression to volumetric
strain changes during the precursory period and the occurrence of a swarm of small earthquakes ( = 8.3)
in the area of Koryakskii Volcano and to its phreatic eruption. We estimated the volumetric compression as
Δε = –(4.1 × 10–6–1.5 × 10–5) from the amplitude of water!level rise using the elastic parameters of the wa!
ter!saturated rocks. While the strain source was active, we observed a decreasing sensitivity of the hydrologic
regime in the well to the precursory processes before large (M ≥ 5.0) tectonic earthquakes.
Korolev S.P., Romanova I.M., Girina O.A., Sorokin A.A., Malkovsky S.I., Urmanov I.P. Software platform for volcano video monitoring // 10th Biennual workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska subduction processes (JKASP-2018). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia, August 20-26. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: IVS FEB RAS. 2018. P. 117-119.
Korolev S.P., Sorokin A.A., Urmanov I.P., Kamaev A., Girina O.A. Classification of Video Observation Data for Volcanic Activity Monitoring Using Computer Vision and Modern Neural NetWorks (on Klyuchevskoy Volcano Example) // Remote Sensing. 2021. Vol. 13. Vol. 23. № 4747. P. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13234747.
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Currently, video observation systems are actively used for volcano activity monitoring. Video cameras allow us to remotely assess the state of a dangerous natural object and to detect thermal anomalies if technical capabilities are available. However, continuous use of visible band cameras instead of special tools (for example, thermal cameras), produces large number of images, that require the application of special algorithms both for preliminary filtering out the images with area of interest hidden due to weather or illumination conditions, and for volcano activity detection. Existing algorithms use preselected regions of interest in the frame for analysis. This region could be changed occasionally to observe events in a specific area of the volcano. It is a problem to set it in advance and keep it up to date, especially for an observation network with multiple cameras. The accumulated perennial archives of images with documented eruptions allow us to use modern deep learning technologies for whole frame analysis to solve the specified task. The article presents the development of algorithms to classify volcano images produced by video observation systems. The focus is on developing the algorithms to create a labelled dataset from an unstructured archive using existing and authors proposed techniques. The developed solution was tested using the archive of the video observation system for the volcanoes of Kamchatka, in particular the observation data for the Klyuchevskoy volcano. The tests show the high efficiency of the use of convolutional neural networks in volcano image classification, and the accuracy of classification achieved 91%. The resulting dataset consisting of 15,000 images and labelled in three classes of scenes is the first dataset of this kind of Kamchatka volcanoes. It can be used to develop systems for monitoring other stratovolcanoes that occupy most of the video frame.
Korolev S.P., Urmanov I.P., Kamaev A., Girina O.A. Parametric Methods and Algorithms of Volcano Image Processing / Software Engineering Perspectives in Intelligent Systems. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Cham: Springer. 2020. Vol. 1295. P. 253-263. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-63319-6_22.
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A key problem of any video volcano surveillance network is an inconsistent quality and information value of the images obtained. To timely analyze the incoming data, they should be pre-filtered. Additionally, due to the continuous network operation and low shooting intervals, an operative visual analysis of the shots stream is quite difficult and requires the application of various computer algorithms. The article considers the parametric algorithms of image analysis developed by the authors for processing the shots of the volcanoes of Kamchatka. They allow automatically filtering the image flow generated by the surveillance network, highlighting those significant shots that will be further analyzed by volcanologists. A retrospective processing of the full image archive with the methods suggested helps to get a data set, labeled with different classes, for future neural network training.
Korzhinsky M. A., Tkachenko S. I., Shmulovich K. I., Steinberg G. S. Native AI and Si formation // Nature. 1995. Vol. 375. № 6532. P. 544 doi:10.1038/375544a0.
Korzhinsky M. A., Tkachenko S. I., Shmulovich K. I., Taran Y. A., Steinberg G. S. Discovery of a pure rhenium mineral at Kudriavy volcano // Nature. 1994. Vol. 369. P. 51-52. doi: 10.1038/369051a0.
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KUDRIAVY volcano on Iturup island in the Kuril arc is an active calc-alkaline volcano. It has not erupted this century; its current volcanic activity is characterized by hot (up to 910oC) gas jets which have been stable for at least 30 years. The composition of the gaseous emissions is typical of high-temperature fumaroles, but we report here the discovery of unusual subsurface sublimates associated with one gas jet—a sulphide mineral containing rhenium as the only cation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported occurrence of a pure rhenium mineral. The concentration of rhen-ium in the fumarole gas is only 2–10 p.p.b., so the condensation of pure rhenium sulphide from this gas requires both enrichment of rhenium by eight orders of magnitude and remarkable selectivity. Rhenium is generally believed to exist in only trace amounts at the Earth's surface, but our findings demonstrate that it can be readily mobilized, dispersed and concentrated by degassing magmas.