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Taran Yuri, Yurova L.M. Volcanic-hydrothermal system of Baransky volcano, Iturup, Kurile islands // IUGG XXI General Assembley. 1995. P. VA41C - 6.
Taran Yuri, Zelenski Mikhail, Chaplygin Ilya, Malik Natalia, Campion Robin, Inguaggiato Salvatore, Pokrovsky Boris, Kalacheva Elena, Melnikov Dmitry, Kazahaya Ryunosuke, Fischer Tobias Gas Emissions From Volcanoes of the Kuril Island Arc (NW Pacific): Geochemistry and Fluxes // Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. 2018. V. 19. V. 6. P. 1859-1880. doi: 10.1029/2018GC007477.    Annotation
The Kuril Island arc extending for about 1,200 km from Kamchatka Peninsula to Hokkaido Island is a typical active subduction zone with ∼40 historically active subaerial volcanoes, some of which are persistently degassing. Seven Kurilian volcanoes (Ebeko, Sinarka, Kuntomintar, Chirinkotan, Pallas, Berg, and Kudryavy) on six islands (Paramushir, Shiashkotan, Chirinkotan, Ketoy, Urup, and Iturup) emit into the atmosphere > 90% of the total fumarolic gas of the arc. During the field campaigns in 2015–2017 direct sampling of fumaroles, MultiGas measurements of the fumarolic plumes and DOAS remote determinations of the SO2 flux were conducted on these volcanoes. Maximal temperatures of the fumaroles in 2015–2016 were 510°C (Ebeko), 440°C (Sinarka), 260°C (Kuntomintar), 720°C (Pallas), and 820°C (Kudryavy). The total SO2 flux (in metric tons per day) from fumarolic fields of the studied volcanoes was measured as ∼1,800 ± 300 t/d, and the CO2 flux is estimated as 1,250 ± 400 t/d. Geochemical characteristics of the sampled gases include δD and δ18O of fumarolic condensates, δ13C of CO2, δ34S of the total sulfur, ratios 3He/4He and 40Ar/36Ar, concentrations of the major gas species, and trace elements in the volcanic gas condensates. The mole ratios C/S are generally <1. All volcanoes of the arc, except the southernmost Mendeleev and Golovnin volcanoes on Kunashir Island, emit gases with 3He/4He values of >7RA (where RA is the atmospheric 3He/4He). The highest 3He/4He ratios of 8.3RA were measured in fumaroles of the Pallas volcano (Ketoy Island) in the middle of the arc.
Telling J., Flower V.J.B., Carn S.A. A multi-sensor satellite assessment of SO2 emissions from the 2012–13 eruption of Plosky Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 98 - 106. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.07.010.    Annotation
Abstract Prolonged basaltic effusive eruptions at high latitudes can have significant atmospheric and environmental impacts, but can be challenging to observe in winter conditions. Here, we use multi-sensor satellite data to assess sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from the 2012–2013 eruption of Plosky Tolbachik volcano (Kamchatka), which lasted ~ 9–10 months and erupted ~ 0.55 km3 DRE. Observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are used to evaluate volcanic activity, SO2 emissions and heat flux associated with the effusion of lava flows. Gaps in the primary OMI SO2 time-series dataset occurred due to instrument limitations and adverse meteorological conditions. Four methods were tested to assess how efficiently they could fill these data gaps and improve estimates of total SO2 emissions. When available, using data from other {SO2} observing instruments was the most comprehensive way to address these data gaps. Satellite measurements yield a total SO2 loading of ~ 200 kt SO2 during the 10-month Plosky Tolbachik eruption, although actual SO2 emissions may have been greater. Based on the satellite SO2 measurements, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) multi-taper method (MTM) was used to analyze cyclical behavior in the complete data series and a 55-day cycle potentially attributable to the eruptive behavior of Plosky Tolbachik during the 2012 – 2013 eruption was identified.
Tibaldi Alessandro, Corazzato Claudia, Kozhurin Andrey, Lagmay Alfredo F.M., Pasquarè Federico A., Ponomareva Vera V., Rust Derek, Tormey Daniel, Vezzoli Luigina Influence of substrate tectonic heritage on the evolution of composite volcanoes: Predicting sites of flank eruption, lateral collapse, and erosion // Global and Planetary Change. 2008. V. 61. № 3-4. P. 151-174. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2007.08.014.    Annotation
This paper aims to aid understanding of the complicated interplay between construction and destruction of volcanoes, with an emphasis on the role of substrate tectonic heritage in controlling magma conduit geometry, lateral collapse, landslides, and preferential erosion pathways. The influence of basement structure on the development of six composite volcanoes located in different geodynamic/geological environments is described: Stromboli (Italy), in an island arc extensional tectonic setting, Ollagüe (Bolivia–Chile) in a cordilleran extensional setting, Kizimen (Russia) in a transtensional setting, Pinatubo (Philippines) in a transcurrent setting, Planchon (Chile) in a compressional cordilleran setting, and Mt. Etna (Italy) in a complex tectonic boundary setting. Analogue and numerical modelling results are used to enhance understanding of processes exemplified by these volcanic centres. We provide a comprehensive overview of this topic by considering a great deal of relevant, recently published studies and combine these with the presentation of new results, in order to contribute to the discussion on substrate tectonics and its control on volcano evolution. The results show that magma conduits in volcanic rift zones can be geometrically controlled by the regional tectonic stress field. Rift zones produce a lateral magma push that controls the direction of lateral collapse and can also trigger collapse. Once lateral collapse occurs, the resulting debuttressing produces a reorganization of the shallow-level magma migration pathways towards the collapse depression. Subsequent landslides and erosion tend to localize along rift zones. If a zone of weakness underlies a volcano, long-term creep can occur, deforming a large sector of the cone. This deformation can trigger landslides that propagate along the destabilized flank axis. In the absence of a rift zone, normal and transcurrent faults propagating from the substrate through the volcano can induce flank instability in directions respectively perpendicular and oblique to fault strike. This destabilization can evolve to lateral collapse with triggering mechanisms such as seismic activity or magmatic intrusion.
Tolstykh M.L., Naumov V.B., Gavrilenko M.G., Ozerov A.Yu., Kononkova N.N. Chemical composition, volatile components, and trace elements in the melts of the Gorely volcanic center, southern Kamchatka: Evidence from inclusions in minerals // Geochemistry International. 2012. V. 50. № 6. P. 522-550. doi:10.1134/S0016702912060079.
Tolstykh M.L., Naumov V.B., Ozerov A.Yu., Kononkova N.N. Composition of Magmas of the 1996 Eruption at the Karymskii Volcanic Center, Kamchatka: Evidence from Melt Inclusions // Geochemistry International. 2001. V. 39. № 5. P. 447-458.
Torsvik T., Paris R., Didenkulova I., Pelinovsky E., Belousov A., Belousova M. Numerical simulation of a tsunami event during the 1996 volcanic eruption in Karymskoye lake, Kamchatka, Russia // Natural Hazards and Earth System Science. 2010. V. 10. № 11. P. 2359-2369. doi:10.5194/nhess-10-2359-2010.
Trifonov Grigory, Zhizhin Mikhail, Melnikov Dmitry, Poyda Alexey VIIRS Nightfire Remote Sensing Volcanoes // Procedia Computer Science. 2017. V. 119. P. 307-314. doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2017.11.189.    Annotation
Satellite based remote sensing of active volcanoes has been performed in various forms since 1965. Compared to “on the ground” observations it lets data to be gathered globally at regular pace for long periods of time without the need for local maintenance. Currently existing publicly available volcanoes thermal activity monitoring systems rely on the detection algorithms narrowly specified for volcanoes temperature ranges and operate using the data from previous generation of sensors, which is supported with non-reserved constellation of two satellites. The presented work proposes pipeline (the sequence of actions) based on the clustering of the data received from the Nightfire thermal anomalies detection algorithm, which is not focused on the specific type of infrared sources. Pipeline has been tested on Kamchatka’s region 2016 year dataset and proved to produce sound results corresponding to manual observations.
Turner S.P., Sims K.W.W., Reagan M.K. A 210Pb–226Ra–230Th–238U study of Klyuchevskoy and Bezymianny volcanoes, Kamchatka // Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 2006. V. 70. № 18, Su. P. A661 doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2006.06.1234.    Annotation
Klyuchevskoy is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth, erupting lavas at a rate of ∼1 m3/s, equivalent to a 50 km length of mid-ocean ridge. Bezymianny is located 20 km south of the summit vent of Klyuchevskoy and has been erupting silicic andesites since its spectacular avalanche eruption in 1956. Major and trace element concentrations and long-lived radiogenic isotope data suggest that basalts and basaltic andesites from Klyuchevskoy and andesites from Bezymianny were derived by different degrees of partial melting of nearly identical mantle sources. Lavas with higher SiO2 concentrations represent the differentiation products of lower degrees of melting after the mantle was fluxed with a fluid derived almost entirely from subducted altered basaltic crust with little or no sediment contribution. The higher SiO2 concentrations for lavas derived from smaller degree melts suggest that they underwent more fractionation because of the loss of their higher water contents. High Th isotope compositions for all lavas from both volcanoes suggest that a significant time transpired between U addition by a slab-fluid and melting. If the excess 226Ra in the lavas is from the slab-fluid, then long term multistage fluxing before melting is required to maintain these 226Ra excesses. An alternative model attributes the excess Ra to melting caused by upwelling mantle in association with rifting of the central Kamchatka depression. The greater Ra excess for Klyuchevskoi’s basaltic andesites compared to its basalts is consistent with generation of the Ra excesses during decompression melting, and a less than few thousand year time frame of differentiation after melting. The lower Ra excesses for Bezymianny’s andesites compared to the more mafic lavas suggest a time frame of fractionation that is longer than this by several thousand years. When time since eruption is accounted for, all samples have (210Pb/226Ra) within 2σ analytical error of one, suggesting that significant long-term gas fluxing of 222Rn into or out of both magma systems has not occurred.
Turner Simon, Sims Kenneth W.W., Reagan Mark, Cook Craig A 210Pb–226Ra–230Th–238U study of Klyuchevskoy and Bezymianny volcanoes, Kamchatka // Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 2007. V. 71. № 19. P. 4771 - 4785. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2007.08.006.    Annotation
Lavas from Klyuchevskoy and Bezymianny volcanoes, Kamchatka, appear to show a link between the extent of partial melting in their mantle source region and the subsequent degree of fractionation suffered by the magmas during passage through the crust. This fractionation may have occurred on timescales significantly less than 1000 years if observed 226Ra excesses largely reflect variable residual porosity in the source melting region. Unlike most arc lavas, those with the highest MgO contents and Ba/Th ratios have the lowest 226Ra excess. Forward models suggest that those portions of the source which had undergone the greatest addition of U by fluids from the subducting plate also underwent the greatest extents of partial melting at the highest residual porosity. At Kluchevskoy, a change from eruption of high-MgO to high-Al2O3 basaltic andesites around 1945 is reflected in an increase in size of 226Ra excess which seems to require a simultaneous decrease in residual porosity and suggests a rapid changes in the melting regime. The eruption of andesites at Bezyminanny, simultaneous with the eruption of basaltic andesites at Klyuchevskoy, further suggests that different degree melts produced at differing residual porosity can be formed and extracted from the melt region at the same time. Thus, the melting processes beneath Klyuchevskoy and Bezyminanny are demonstrably complex. They have clearly been influenced by both fluid addition from the subducting plate and extension and decompression beneath the Central Kamchatka Depression. Finally, the 210Pb data are, with one or two exceptions, in equilibrium with 226Ra, suggesting that there was restricted relative magma-gas movement in this highly productive magmatic system.





 

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