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Burtsev M.A., Girina O.A., Kramareva L.S., Loupian E.A., Sorokin A.A., Uvarov I.A. Organization of heterogeneous remote sensing data management for near real-time volcanic activity monitoring and analysis with the VolSatView // JKASP-2018. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: IVS FEB RAS. 2018.
Carter A.J., Girina O.A., Ramsey M.S., Demyanchuk Yu.V. ASTER and field observations of the 24 December 2006 eruption of Bezymianny Volcano, Russia // Remote Sensing of Environment. 2008. V. 112. P. 2569-2577.    Annotation
An explosive eruption occurred at Bezymianny Volcano (Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia) on 24 December 2006 at 09:17 (UTC). Seismicity
increased three weeks prior to the large eruption, which produced a 12–15 km above sea level (ASL) ash column. We present field observations from 27 December 2006 and 2 March 2007, combined with satellite data collected from 8 October 2006 to 11 April 2007 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), as part of the instrument's rapid-response program to volcanic eruptions. Pixel-integrated brightness temperatures were calculated from both ASTER 90 m/pixel thermal infrared (TIR) data as well as 30 m/pixel shortwave infrared (SWIR) data. Four days prior to the eruption, the maximum TIR temperature was 45 °C above the average background temperature (−33 °C) at the dome, which we interpret was a precursory signal, and had dropped to 8 °C above background by 18 March 2007. On 20 December 2006, there was also a clear thermal signal in the SWIR data of 128 °C using ASTER Band 7 (2.26 μm). The maximum SWIR temperature was 181 °C on the lava dome on 4 January 2007, decreasing below the detection limit of the SWIR data by 11 April 2007. On 4 January 2007 a hot linear feature was observed at the dome in the SWIR data, which produced a maximum temperature of 700 °C for the hot fraction of the pixel using the dual band technique. This suggests that magmatic temperatures were present at the dome at this time, consistent with the emplacement of a new lava lobe following the eruption. The eruption also produced a large, 6.5 km long by up to 425 m wide pyroclastic flow (PF) deposit that was channelled into a valley to the south–southeast. The PF deposit cooled over the following three months but remained elevated above the average background temperature. A second field investigation in March 2007 revealed a still-warm PF deposit that contained fumaroles. It was also observed that the upper dome morphology had changed in the past year, with a new lava lobe having in-filled the crater that formed following the 9 May 2006 eruption. These data provide further information on effusive and explosive activity at Bezymianny using quantitative remote sensing data and reinforced by field observations to assist in pre-eruption detection as well as post-eruption monitoring.
Carter A.J., Ramsey M.S., Girina O.A., Belousov A.B., Durant A., Skilling I., Wolfe A. Spaceborne and field-based observations of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka from 2000-2008 // Abstracts. AGU Fall Meeting, 14-19 December. San-Francisco, USA: AGU. 2008. № V43A-2140.
Carter Adam J., Ramsey Michael S., Belousov Alexander B. Detection of a new summit crater on Bezymianny Volcano lava dome: satellite and field-based thermal data // Bulletin of Volcanology. 2007. V. 69. № 7. P. 811-815. doi:10.1007/s00445-007-0113-x.
Caudron Corentin, Taisne Benoit, Kugaenko Yulia, Saltykov Vadim Magma migration at the onset of the 2012–13 Tolbachik eruption revealed by Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analysis // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 60 - 67. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.09.010.    Annotation
Abstract In contrast of the 1975–76 Tolbachik eruption, the 2012–13 Tolbachik eruption was not preceded by any striking change in seismic activity. By processing the Klyuchevskoy volcano group seismic data with the Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analysis (SARA) method, we gain insights into the dynamics of magma movement prior to this important eruption. A clear seismic migration within the seismic swarm, started 20 hours before the reported eruption onset (05:15 UTC, 26 November 2012). This migration proceeded in different phases and ended when eruptive tremor, corresponding to lava flows, was recorded (at ~ 11:00 UTC, 27 November 2012). In order to get a first order approximation of the magma location, we compare the calculated seismic intensity ratios with the theoretical ones. As expected, the observations suggest that the seismicity migrated toward the eruption location. However, we explain the pre-eruptive observed ratios by a vertical migration under the northern slope of Plosky Tolbachik volcano followed by a lateral migration toward the eruptive vents. Another migration is also captured by this technique and coincides with a seismic swarm that started 16–20 km to the south of Plosky Tolbachik at 20:31 {UTC} on November 28 and lasted for more than 2 days. This seismic swarm is very similar to the seismicity preceding the 1975–76 Tolbachik eruption and can be considered as a possible aborted eruption.
Chaplygin Ilya, Yudovskaya Marina, Vergasova Lidiya, Mokhov Andrey Native gold from volcanic gases at Tolbachik 1975–76 and 2012–13 Fissure Eruptions, Kamchatka // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 200 - 209. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.08.018.    Annotation
Abstract Aggregates and euhedral crystals of native gold were found in sublimates formed during New Tolbachik Fissure Eruption in 2012–2013 (NTFE). Gold-bearing sublimate samples were taken from a red-hot (690 °C) degassing fracture in the roof of an active lava tunnel 1.5 km from active Naboko cinder cone in May 2013. The gas condensate collected at 690 °C in this site contains 16 ppb Au, 190 ppb Ag and 1180 ppm Cu compared to 3 ppb Au, 39 ppb Ag and 9.7 ppm Cu in the condensate of pristine magmatic gas sampled at 1030 °C. The 690 °C volcanic gas is most likely a mix of magmatic gas and local snow buried under the lava flows as indicated by oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of the condensate. The lower-temperature gas enrichment in gold, copper and chlorine is resulted from evaporation of the 690 °C condensate during forced gas pumping at sampling. Native gold was also found in fumarolic encrustations collected from caverns in basalt lava flows with temperature up to 600 °C in June 2014, in a year after eruption finished. The native gold precipitation in newly formed Cu-rich sublimates together with the well known gold occurrences in cinder cones of 1975–1976 Large Tolbachik Fissure Eruption manifest a transport capability of oxidized volcanic gas.
Churikova T., Gordeychik B., Iwamori H., Nakamura H., Ishizuka O., Nishizawa T., Haraguchi S., Yasukawa K., Miyazaki T., Vaglarov B., Ueki K., Toyama C., Chang Q., Kimura J.I. Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia // 26th IUGG General Assembly 2015. June 22 - July 2, 2015, Prague, Czech Republic. 2015. P. VS28p-487.    Annotation
Data on the geology, petrography, and geochemistry of previously geochemically unstudied Middle-Late-Pleistocene rocks from Tolbachik volcanic massif (Central Kamchatka Depression, CKD) are presented. Two volcanic series – middle-K and high-K were erupted. The geochemical history of the massif was started earlier 86 ka (K-Ar dating) with the formation of the Tolbachik pedestal presented by middle-K series. During stratovolcanoes formation both series occur and the role of high-K melts was increasing with time. In Holocene high-K rocks are dominated but some cinder cone lavas are presented by middle-K high-Mg melts which suggest that both volcanic series are still exists. The computer modeling show that both series can be explained by the process of crystal fractionation at different water content from nearly or the same mantle source similar to high-Mg basalts of 1975 Northern Breakthrough. Middle-K rocks could crystallize at water-rich conditions (more than 2% of H2O) while the high-K rock could crystallize at dry conditions at the same pressure. However the existence of different mantle sources and possible magma mixing cannot be excluded. Our data show that fractional crystallization at different P-T-H2O-fO2 conditions can be one of the main processes responsible for rock variations at CKD. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes suggest 2-4% of crustal assimilation to the magma chamber during pedestal and stratovolcanoes formation while lava-cinder cones are not show evidences of crustal assimilation. Major and trace element data coupled with K-Ar dating provide strong evidence that Povorotnaya mount located in 8 km NE of Plosky Tolbachik is the old block of the Tolbachik massif pedestal and for the moment the oldest known object (306 ka by K-Ar dating) in Klyuchevskaya group.

Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282656425_Geology_petrology_and_geochemistry_of_the_Tolbachik_volcanic_massif_Kamchatka_Russia [accessed Jun 19, 2017].
Churikova T., Gordeychik B., Wörner G., Ivanov B., Maximov A. Mineralogy and petrology of Kamen volcano rocks, Kamchatka // Mitigating natural hazards in active arc environments. Linkages among tectonism, earthquakes, magma genesis and eruption in volcanic arcs, with a special focus on hazards posed by arc volcanism and great earthquakes. June 22-26, 2009, Fairbanks, Alaska. 2009. P. 117-118.
Churikova T., Gordeychik B., Wörner G. Mantle and fluid sources below Klyuchevskoy-Kamen-Bezymianny line (Kamchatka) // Geofluid-3. Nature and Dynamics of fluids in Subduction Zones. Tokyo, Japan, February 28 - March 3, 2014. 2014. P. 72    Annotation
Kamen volcano is an extinct volcanic complex located in the central part of the Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes (KGV) between active Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, and Ploskie Sopky volcanoes. Kamen volcano was mapped by V.A. Ermakov only in the 1970s. However the modern geochemical studies of Kamen volcano have not been previously carried out and its relationship and petrogenesis in comparison to other active neighbors are unknown. A modern geochemical study of Kamen volcano is needed because it will shed light not only on the history of the volcano itself and its closest neighbors, but also on the history and magmatic evolution of the KGV melts in general. The distance between the summits of Kamen and Klyuchevskoy is only 5 km, the same as between Kamen and Bezymianny. The close relationship in space and time of the KGV and the common zone of seismicity below them suggests a common source and a possible genetic relationship between their magmas. However, the Late-Pleistocene-Holocene lavas of all these neighboring volcanoes are very different: high-Mg and high-Al Ol-Cpx-Pl basalts and basaltic andesites occur at Klyuchevskoy volcano, and Hbl-bearing andesites and dаcites dominate at Bezymianny volcano. The rocks of Ploskie Sopky volcano, situated only 10 km NW of Kamen, are represented by medium-high-K subalkaline lavas.
Churikova T.G., Gordeychik B.N., Edwards B.R., Ponomareva V.V., Zelenin E.A. The Tolbachik volcanic massif: A review of the petrology, volcanology and eruption history prior to the 2012–2013 eruption // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 3 - 21. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.10.016.    Annotation
The primary goal of this paper is to summarize all of the published data on the Tolbachik volcanic massif in order to provide a clear framework for the geochronologic, petrologic, geochemical and to a lesser extent the geophysical and tectonic characteristics of the Tolbachik system established prior to the 2012–2013 eruption. The Tolbachik massif forms the southwestern part of the voluminous Klyuchevskoy volcanic group in Kamchatka. The massif includes two large stratovolcanoes, Ostry (“Sharp”) Tolbachik and Plosky (“Flat”) Tolbachik, and a 70 km long zone of the basaltic monogenetic cones that form an arcuate rift-like structure running across the Plosky Tolbachik summit. The Tolbachik massif gained international attention after the 1975–1976 Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (GTFE), which was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century and one of the six largest basaltic fissure eruptions in historical time. By the end of the GTFE, 2.2 km3 of volcanic products of variable basaltic compositions with MORB-like isotopic characteristics covered an area of > 1000 km2. During the following three decades more than 700 papers on various aspects of this eruption have been published both in national and international journals. Although the recent 2012–2013 eruption, which is the main topic of this volume, was not as long as the {GTFE} in duration or as large in area and volume of the erupted deposits, it brought to the surface a unique volcanic material never found before. In order to understand the data from new eruptions and make significant progress towards a better understanding of the Tolbachik magmatic system it is important to be able to put the new results into the historic context of previous research.





 

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