Botcharnikov Roman E., Shmulovich Kirill I., Tkachenko Sergey I., Korzhinsky Mikhail A., Rybin Alexander V. Hydrogen isotope geochemistry and heat balance of a fumarolic system: Kudriavy volcano, Kuriles // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2003. Vol. 124. № 1-2. P. 45-66. doi:10.1016/S0377-0273(03)00043-X.
The temperature and hydrogen isotope composition of the fumarolic gases have been studied at Kudriavy volcano, Kurile Islands, which is unique for investigating the processes of magma degassing because of the occurrence of numerous easily accessible fumaroles with a temperature range of 100–940°C. There are several local fumarolic fields with a total surface area of about 2600 m2 within the flattened crater of 200×600 m. Each fumarolic field is characterized by the occurrence of high- and low-temperature fumaroles with high gas discharges and steaming areas with lower temperatures. We have studied the thermal budget of the Kudriavy fumarolic system on the basis of the quantitative dependences of the hydrogen isotope ratio (D/H) and tritium concentration on the temperature of fumarolic gases and compared them with the calculated heat balance of mixing between hot magmatic gas and cold meteoric water. Hydrogen isotope composition (δD and 3H) shows a well expressed correlation with the gas temperature. Since D/H ratio and 3H are good indicators of water sources in volcanic areas, it suggests that the thermal budget of the fumarolic system is mostly controlled by the admixing of meteoric waters to magmatic gases. The convective mechanism of heat transfer in the hydrothermal system governs the maximum temperatures of local fumaroles and fumarolic fields. Low-temperature fumaroles at Kudriavy are thermally buffered by the boiling processes of meteoric waters in the mixing zone at pressures of 3–12 bar. These values may correspond to the hydrostatic pressure of water columns about 30–120 m in height in the volcanic edifice and hence to the depth of a mixing/boiling zone. Conductive heat transfer is governed by conductive heat exchange between gases and country rocks and appears to be responsible for the temperature distribution around a local fumarolic vent. The temperature and pressure of shallow degassing magma are estimated to be 1050°C and 2–3 bar, respectively. The length of the ‘main’ fumarolic gas conduit is estimated to be about 80 m from the linear correlation between maximal temperatures of fumarolic fields and distances to the highest-temperature ‘F-940’ fumarole. This value may correspond to the depth of an apical part of the magmatic chamber. The geometry of the crater zone at the Kudriavy summit and the model of convective gas cooling suggest different hydrostatic pressures in the hydrothermal system at the base of high- and low-temperature gas conduits. The depths of gas sources for low-temperature fumaroles are evaluated to be about 200 m at the periphery of the magma chamber.
Bouvet De Maisonneuve Caroline, Bergal-Kuvikas Olga, Phua Marcus, Bradley Kyle, Oalmann Jeffrey, Eisele Steffen, Forni Francesca, Fairuz Razali Nur, Rizaldi Putra, Rifai Hamdi Improving our understanding of Southeast Asian volcanic eruption histories, with an emphasis on Sumatra (Indonesia) // Crossing New Frontiers - Tephra Hunt in Transylvania 24-29 June 2018 in Romania, Europe. 2018.
Braitseva O.A., Bazanova L.I., Melekestsev I.V., Sulerzhitskiy L.D. Large holocene eruptions of Avacha Volcano, Kamchatka (7250-3700 14C years B.P.) // Volcanology and Seismology. 1998. Vol. 20. № 1. P. 1-27.
The chronology, dynamics, and parameters of seven large eruptions of Avacha Volcano were reconstructed for its IAv andesitic period 7250-370014C years B.P., which began after a >2000-year period of relative quiescence. Their juvenile (andesitic pyroclastics) and resurgent products are described, and the geological and geomorphological consequences are evaluated. The largest eruption occurred 715014C years B.P. (8-10 km3 of erupted material). The subsequent events occurred 5700 (≥0.34 km3), 5600 (≥0.4 km3), 5500 (>1.34 km3), 5000 (≥0.5 km3), 4500 (>1.1 km3), and 4000 (≥0.6 km3) 14C years B.P. The erupted rocks were dominated by tephra; pyroclastic flows occurred only during the events of 5500 and 5000 years ago. It is believed that most of the eruptions produced acid peaks of varying intensity in the Greenland ice sheet.
Реконструированы хронология, динамика и параметры семи крупнейших извержений андезитового этапа 1Ав 7250-3700 14С-лет назад (л.н.) вулкана Авачинский на Камчатке, начавшегося после >2000-летнего периода относительного покоя. Описаны их ювенильные (андезитовая пирокластика) и резургентные продукты, оценен геолого-геоморфологический эффект. Самое мощное извержение (объем продуктов 8-10 км3) было 7250, последующие - 5700 (3*0,34 км3), 5600 (3*0,4 км3), 5500 (1,34 км3), 5000 (0,5 км3), 4500 (>1,1 км3), 4000 ( 0,6 км3) 14С-л.н. Среди изверженных продуктов преобладала тефра, пирокластические потоки имели место лишь при извержениях 5500 и 5000 л.н. Предполагается, что большинство извержений могло давать кислотные пики разной интенсивности в Гренландском ледниковом щите.
Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V. Eruptive history of Karymsky volcano, Kamchatka, USSR, based on tephra stratigraphy and 14C dating // Bulletin of Volcanology. 1991. Vol. 53. № 3. P. 195-206. doi:10.1007/BF00301230.
Eruptions of the active Karymsky stratovolcano began about 5300 (6100 C-14) B.P. from within a pre-existing caldera which formed 7700 C-14 B.P. As indicated by 32 C-14 determinations on buried soils and charcoal, the volcano has gone through two major cycles of activity, separated by a 2300 year period of repose. The first cycle can be divided into two stages (6100-5100 and 4300-2800 B.P.). The earlier stage began with especially intense eruptions of basaltic andesite to dacite. The later stage was characterized by moderate-strength eruptions of andesite. The second cycle, which is characterized by weak to moderate intermittent eruptions of andesite, started 500 B.P. and continues to the present. Eruptive patterns suggest that this cycle may continue for at least another 200 years with an eruptive character similar to that of the recent past.
Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Ponomareva V.V., Kirianov V.Yu. The caldera-forming eruption of Ksudach volcano about cal. A.D. 240: the greatest explosive event of our era in Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 1996. Vol. 70. № 1-2. P. 49-65. doi:10.1016/0377-0273(95)00047-X.
The largest Plinian eruption of our era and the latest caldera-forming eruption in the Kuril-Kamchatka region occurred about cal. A.D. 240 from the Ksudach volcano. This catastrophic explosive eruption was similar in type and characteristics to the 1883 Krakatau event. The volume of material ejected was 18–19 km3 (8 km3 DRE), including 15 km3 of tephra fall and 3–4 km3 of pyroclastic flows. The estimated height of eruptive column is 22–30 km. A collapse caldera resulting from this eruption was 4 × 6.5 km in size with a cavity volume of 6.5–7 km3. Tephra fall was deposited to the north of the volcano and reached more than 1000 km. Pyroclastic flows accompanied by ash-cloud pyroclastic surges extended out to 20 km. The eruption was initially phreatomagmatic and then became rhythmic, with each pulse evolving from pumice falls to pyroclastic flows. Erupted products were dominantly rhyodacite throughout the eruption. During the post-caldera stage, when the Shtyubel cone started to form within the caldera, basaltic-andesite and andesite magma began to effuse. The trigger for the eruption may have been an intrusion of mafic magma into the rhyodacite reservoir. The eruption had substantial environmental impact and may have produced a large acidity peak in the Greenland ice sheet.
Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Ponomareva V.V., Kirianov V.Yu. The last caldera-forming eruption in Kamchatka: Ksudach volcano, 1700-1800 14C-years ago // Volcanology and Seismology. 1995. Vol. 17. № 2. P. 147-168.
A catastrophic explosive eruption occurred 1700-1800 14C-years ago at Ksudach Volcano in Kamchatka. It was one of the AD greatest Plinian-type eruptions. It erupted 18-19 km3 of pyroclastic material and produced a collapse caldera 4 × 6.5 km in size and 6.5-7 km3 in volume. The eruptive column rose to a height of 23 km. It was the last caldera-forming eruption in the Kuril-Kamchatka region. It resembled an eruption that occurred at Krakatau in 1883 in type and size. The eruption was bound to have a climatic impact, impaired the Earth's ozone layer, and produced an acid peak in the Greenland ice sheet. -from Journal summary
Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Ponomareva V.V., Litasova S.N. The history reconstruction of volcanic activity in the Tolbachik regional zone of scoria cones deduced from detalled tephra and geochronological investications // Arc Volcanism: Physics and Tectonics. Proceedings of a 1981 IAVCEI Symposium, Arc Volcanism, August-September, 1981, Tokyo and Hakone. Tokyo: Terra Scientific Publishing Co. 1983. P. 47-48.
Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Ponomareva V.V., Sulerzhitskii L.D. The ages of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region, Russia // Bulletin of Volcanology. 1995. Vol. 57. № 6. P. 383-402. doi: 10.1007/BF00300984.
The ages of most of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region have been determined by extensive geological, geomorphological, tephrochronological and isotopic geochronological studies, including more than 600 14C dates. Eight ‘Krakatoa-type’ and three ‘Hawaiian-type’ calderas and no less than three large explosive craters formed here during the Holocene. Most of the Late Pleistocene Krakatoa-type calderas were established around 30 000–40 000 years ago. The active volcanoes are geologically very young, with maximum ages of about 40 000–50 000 years. The overwhelming majority of recently active volcanic cones originated at the very end of the Late Pleistocene or in the Holocene. These studies show that all Holocene stratovolcanoes in Kamchatka were emplaced in the Holocene only in the Eastern volcanic belt. Periods of synchronous, intensified Holocene volcanic activity occurred within the time intervals of 7500–7800 and 1300–1800 14C years BP.
Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Ponomareva V.V., Sulerzhitskiy L.D., Litasova S.N. Ages of active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region // Volcanology and Seismology. 1995. Vol. 16. № 4-5. P. 341-369.
The births (ages) of most of the active volcanoes, calderas, and large craters produced by caldera-resembling eruptions (subcaldera craters) were dated as a result of geological, geomorphological, tephrochronological, and isotopic studies. The dated active volcanoes were found to be fairly young formations, the age of the oldest being 40-50 thousand years. Most of the presently highly active volcanoes had been born at the very end of the late Pleistocene or during the Holocene. Carbon-14 ages were determined for the majority of the Holocene volcanoes. The periods of time when Holocene volcanoes had been synchronously active were 7500-7800 and 1300-1800 years ago. -from Journal summary
По результатам геолого-геоморфологических, тефрохронологических и изотопно-геохронологических исследований на базе более 600 14С-дат определено время возникновения (возраст) большинства действующих вулканов, кальдер и кратеров субкальдерных извержений Курило-Камчатского региона. Установлено, что действующие вулканы являются достаточно молодыми образованиями с максимальным возрастом 40-50 тыс. лет. Подавляющее большинство наиболее активных в настоящее время вулканов начало формироваться в самом конце позднего плейстоцена и в голоцене. Для большинства вулканов, возникших в голоцене, определен их 14С-возраст. Установлено, что все полигенные стратовулканы Камчатки в голоцене возникали только в пределах ее Восточной вулканической зоны. Определен 14С-возраст большинства позднеплейстоценовых кальдер, которые сформировались Преимущественно к интервале времени 30-40 тыс. лет назад. Датированы все голоценовые кальдеры и ряд кратеров субкальдерных извержений. Выявлены периоды синхронной активизации действующих вулканов в голоцене в интервале времени 7500-7800 и 1300-1800 лет назад.
Braitseva O.A., Sulerzhitskii L.D., Ponomareva V.V., Melekestsev I.V. Geochronology of the greatest Holocene explosive eruptions in Kamchatka and their imprint on the Greenland glacier shield // Transactions (Doklady) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Earth science section. 1997. Vol. 352. № 1. P. 138-140.